share a little knowledge…………..
Thank God I was raised by the presence ida hyang widhi wasa Almighty God for His favor from him I was able to finish the paper well enough and just in time. With the title of the paper “BIOTECHNOLOGY SIMPLE MAKING CHEESE”.
Even with a limited supporting books.
The purpose of this paper I collated on the basis of class XII biology assignment completeness IPA 2,
And so the students can also know about biotechnology skarang help us much in the completeness of life, both in the fields of food, pharmacy, medicine, agriculture etc..
As well as the students also can find out what is meant by biotechnology, part of its specific biotechnology discussed that traditional biotechnology, application of traditional biotechnology, food samples were generated, and the impact of biotechnology such umun.
I thank those who have helped in the preparation of this paper, the teacher and all who have given information that I can not mention one by one.
In the preparation of this paper, I realized that there are still many shortcomings in it, so for that I expect criticism and constructive suggestions from readers in the perfection of this paper.
Hopefully, this paper can be useful for helping students in the learning process in biology biotechnology in particular.
Once again I say THANK YOU.
OM OM SANTI SANTI SANTI
Werdhi grand, February 2012
I KADEK Radha CANDRA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………..
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………..
BIOTECHNOLOGY A.PENGERTIAN …………………………………………..
B.Modes TYPES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ……………………………………………..
1.BIOTEKNOLOGI CONVENTIONAL (TRADITIONAL) ……….
MODERN 2.BIOTEKNOLOGI ………………………………………………
C. EXAMPLES OF USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
TRADITIONAL (CHEESE) ………………………………………………………..
CHEESE 1.PEMBUATAN …………………………………………………………
CHEESE 2.JENIS ………………………………………………………………………
NUTRITION 4.KANDUNGAN ………………………………………………………….
BIOTECHNOLOGY D.DAMPAK ………………………………………………….
CHAPTER III CLOSING ……………………………………………………………………………….
Biotechnology is a branch of science that studies the use of living things (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) and products of living things (enzymes, alcohol) in the production process to produce goods and services. Today, the development of biotechnology is not only based on biology alone, but also on applied sciences and pure, such as biochemistry, computers, molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, chemistry, mathematics, and so forth. In other words, biotechnology is an applied science that combines the various branches of science in the production of goods and services.
Biotechnology is simply known by mankind since thousands of years ago. For example, in the field of food technology is brewing, bread, and cheese that has been known since the 19th century, breeding plants to produce new varieties in agriculture and animal breeding and reproduction. In the medical field, the application of biotechnology in the past evidenced partly by the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics, and insulin although still in limited quantities due to the fermentation process is not perfect. Significant changes occurred after the discovery by Louis Pasteur bioreactor. With these tools, production of antibiotics and vaccines can be done in bulk.
At this time, biotechnology is growing very rapidly, especially in developed countries. Progress is marked by the discovery of a variety of technologies such as genetic engineering, tissue culture, recombinant DNA, stem cell proliferation, cloning, and others. This technology allows us to obtain the cure genetic diseases or chronic incurable, such as cancer or AIDS. Research in the field of stem cell development also allows people with stroke or other diseases that result in loss or damage to body tissues can recover to normal. In the food sector, using the technology of genetic engineering, tissue culture and recombinant DNA, can produce plants with characteristics and superior product because it contains more nutrients than regular crops, and is also more resistant to pests or environmental stresses. Application of biotechnology in the future can also be found on environmental protection from pollution. For example, the decomposition of oil spilled into the sea by the bacteria, and the decomposition of substances that are toxic (poison) in a river or the sea by using new types of bacteria.
Advances in biotechnology could not be separated from the various controversies surrounding the development of the technology. For example, the technology of cloning and genetic engineering on food crops come under fire from various groups.
One of the products of biotechnology in food products through the simple process of fermentation of milk is cheese.
Cheese is a dairy product one of the most important and widely consumed.
It is estimated there are more than 3000 varieties of cheese in the world, who came from France, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Switzerland, Italy, UK, USA and other European countries.
A lot of ya!
The term biotechnology for the first time put forward by Karl Ereky, a Hungarian engineer in 1917 to describe the large-scale pig production using sugar beet as a source of feed (Suwanto, 1998). Biotechnology derived from two words, namely ‘bio’ means living things and ‘technology’ which means how to produce goods or services.
Of alloys two words European Federation of Biotechnology (1989) defines biotechnology as a combination of the natural sciences and engineering sciences that aims to improve the application of living organisms, cells, parts of living organisms, and molecular analogues for products and services. During this time, we see so rapid developments in various fields of biotechnology. The rapid development of biotechnology is in line with the level of human needs on earth.
This is understandable given the biotechnology promises a revolution in almost all aspects of human life, ranging from agriculture, livestock and fisheries to health and pengobatanBioteknologi not only develop at the end – the end of this course. Biotechnology has been used since thousands of years ago, in all areas, such as the food industry, medicine – medicine, agriculture, health, and environmental management in the past, biotechnology done simply. Rapid development occurred after unknown microorganism fermentation pioneered by Louis Pasteur so he got the nickname as the father of biotechnology.
The development of modern biotechnology occurred after the discovery of the DNA structure around 1950, followed by the discovery – the discovery of the other. The discovery of gene expression, DNA cutting enzymes, recombinant DNA created by combining the DNA of two different organisms, and cloning is an example bioteknologimodern. Modern biotechnology is biotechnology that is based on manipulation or engineering of DNA (genes), in addition to utilizing microbiology and biochemistry.
Biotechnology is the use of scientific principles using living things to produce products and services for the benefit of man. Supporting sciences in biotechnology include microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, cell biology, chemical engineering, and enzimologi.
Commonly used in biotechnology microorganisms or their parts to increase the added value of a definition of biotechnology bahan.Adapun some are as follows:
1). Integrated use of biochemistry, mikrobiology and engineering sciences to realize the technological applications of micro-organisms, tissue culture and other parts.
2). Application of organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries.
3). The technology uses the phenomenon of biology to copy and produce a variety of useful products.
4). Biotechnology is nothing more than a term given to a set of techniques and processes.
5). Biotechnology is the use of living organisms and components in the areas of agriculture, food and other industrial processes.
6). Application of various techniques that use living organisms or parts thereof, and to deliver products and / or services.
B. TYPE TYPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
Biotechnology can be classified as biotechnology conventional / traditional and modern. Conventional biotechnology is biotechnology that utilizes microorganisms to produce alcohol, acetic acid, sugar, or food ingredients, such as tempe, tape, oncom, and kecap.Mikroorganisme can alter food.
Process assisted microorganisms, such as fermentation, the result, among others tempe, tape, soy sauce, and so on, including cheese and yogurt. The process is considered as biotechnology past. Characteristic seen in conventional biotechnology, namely the direct use of living things and do not know the use of enzymes.
1. BIOTECHNOLOGY CONVENTIONAL (Traditional)
1. Food Biotechnology Sector
a). Processing of dairy products:
To make yogurt, pasteurized milk first, then most of the fat removed. Microorganisms play a role in the manufacture of yoghurt, namely Lactobacillus Streptococcus bulgaricusdan thermophillus. Both bacteria are added to milk with an equal amount, then stored for ± 5 hours at a temperature of 45oC. During storage the pH will drop to 4.0 as a result of the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, milk can be refrigerated and taste.
In the manufacture of cheese used lactic acid bacteria, ie Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. The bacteria ferment the lactose in the milk serves to lactic acid.
Making butter using a microorganism Streptococcus lactis and Lectonostoceremoris. These bacteria form a process of acidification. Furthermore, given the taste of certain milk and butter fat separated. Then butterfat butter stirring to produce a ready to eat.
b. Non food products – milk:
In the manufacture of soy sauce, mushrooms, Aspergillus oryzae cultured on wheat bran first. Fungus Aspergillus oryzae, together with lactic acid bacteria growing on soybean crush the cooked mixture of wheat. After the fermentation of carbohydrates on long enough will eventually be produced soy products.
Tempe has good nutritional value. In addition, Tempe has several benefits, such as to prevent and control diarrhea, duodenitis accelerate the healing process, improving digestion, can lower cholesterol, may reduce toxicity, increase vitality, prevent anemia, inhibit aging, and is able to inhibit the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes , and cancer. To make tempeh, soy ingredients than necessary is also required yeast. Yeast is a collection of spores of microorganisms, in this mold. In the process of making tempeh required at least four types of fungi of the genus Rhizopus, namely Rhyzopus oligosporus, Rhyzopus stolonifer, Rhyzopus arrhizus, and Rhyzopus oryzae. The mycelium of the fungus will be tying the pieces of soybeans and soybean products memfermentasikannya be. The fermentation process causes chemical changes in the protein, fat, and carbohydrates. These changes increase the protein content of soybean up to nine times.
Tape is made of basic ingredients cassava using yeast cells. Yeast produces an enzyme that can convert starch into products such as sugar and alcohol. Our society is based on the experience made the tape.
a. Hydroponic planting
Hydroponics comes from the Greek words hydro meaning water and ponos, which means work. So, hydroponics means working water or working with water. In practice hydroponics conducted with a variety of methods, depending on the media used. The method used in hydroponics, including water culture method (using water media), sand culture method (using sand), and the method of porous (using medium gravel, broken bricks, etc.). The method was successful and relatively easy to implement a method of sand.
b. Planting in aeroponics
Aeroponic derived from the word aero means air and ponos, which means power. So, aeroponics is the empowerment of the air. Actually aeroponics is a type of hydroponic (water empower), because the water containing the nutrient solution sprayed in a mist to the roots of plants. Root crops are planted hanging will absorb the nutrient solution.
3. Biotechnology of Livestock
Traditional biotechnology in livestock, eg sheep Ankon which is a short-legged sheep and crooked, as a result of natural mutation and Jersey cows were selected by humans in order to produce milk with more cream content.
4. Health and Medicine Biotechnology Sector
Some examples of traditional biotechnology in the fields of medicine, such as penicillin antibiotic used for the treatment, isolated from bacteria and fungi, and microorganisms that vaccines are beneficial toxins have been turned off to enhance immunity.
2. MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY
Along with the development of science, experts have started again with the use of biotechnology to develop scientific principles through research. In the attempt of modern biotechnology can produce effectively and efficiently.
Today, biotechnology is not only used in the food industry but has covered a variety of areas, such as genetic engineering, pollution management, creation of energy sources, and so on. With the variety of research and development of science and technology, the greater the benefits of biotechnology for the days to come. Some applications of modern biotechnology as follows:
a. Genetic engineering
Genetic engineering is a way of manipulating the genes to produce new beings with the desired properties. Genetic engineering is also called transplant genes or DNA recombination. DNA used in genetic engineering to combine the properties of living things. That’s because the DNA of every living being has the same structure, so it can be recommended. Furthermore, the DNA will be set sifatsifat beings for generations. To change a cell’s DNA can be done through many ways, for example through the transplant core, cell fusion technology, plasmids, and DNA recombination.
b. Biotechnology in medicine
Biotechnology has an important role in medicine, for example in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antibiotics and hormones.
c. Biotechnology in agriculture
Today the industrial development advanced rapidly. As a result, many displaced agricultural land, especially in the peri-urban areas. On the other hand the need for agricultural products should be improved in line with the increase in population. To support this, today has developed biotechnology in agriculture.
d. Biotechnology farm field
Biotechnology can be developed with livestock products. Product, for example in the form of growth hormone can stimulate the growth of farm animals. With genetic engineering can create artificial or animal growth hormone BST (Bovin Somatotropin hormone). Hormones are engineered from bacteria, if diinfeksikan in animals can encourage growth and increase milk production by 20%.
e. Biotechnology fuel of the future
You already know that fossil fuels including resources that can not be updated. Therefore, a time will run out. It is a challenge for scientists to find alternative fuels produced through biotechnology.
f. Biotechnology sewage treatment
Cans, waste paper, and food scraps, leftover agriculture or industrial activities is a material that is usually not desired by humans. The material is called waste or garbage. The presence of waste very threatening environment. Therefore, efforts must be made to handle it. Waste handling can be done in various ways, such as by dumped, burned, or recycled. Among all of the best ways is by recycling.
C. EXAMPLES OF USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
The cheese has a style and taste different, depending on the type of milk used, the type of bacteria or fungi that are used in fermentation, long fermentation and storage (“maturation”). Other factors such as the type of food consumed by mammals produce milk and milk heating process. Although there are hundreds of types of cheese produced all over the world, but fundamentally cheese is made in the same way.
1). MAKING CHEESE
There are five main stages in the manufacture of cheese. These stages are:
Milk is heated so that lactic acid bacteria, namely Streptococcus and Lactobacillus can grow. These bacteria consume the lactose in the milk and turn it into lactic acid. When the acidity increases, the solids in milk (casein protein, fats, some vitamins and minerals) agglomerate and form curds.
Bacteria rennet added to the milk that is heated which then make proteins coagulate and divide the milk into the liquid (whey) and solid (curd). Once separated, the whey is sometimes used to make cheeses such as Ricotta and Cypriot hallumi but usually the whey is removed. Curd cheese crushed into granules with the help of a tool shaped like a lute, and the more delicate curds are the more dried whey and will produce a harder cheese.
Rennet convert sugar into acids in milk and whey proteins that are to be. The number of bacteria that entered and the temperature is very important for high density cheese. This process takes between 10 minutes to 2 hours, depending on the amount of milk as well as the temperature of the milk. Most of the cheese using rennet in the manufacturing process, but the ancient days when the cheese is still made traditionally, the sap of the leaves and twigs of the fig tree is used as a substitute for rennet.
3). Processing whey
After giving the rennet, the next process is different. Some soft cheeses moved carefully into the mold. In contrast to other cheeses, curd sliced and chopped by hand or with the help of a machine in order to spend more whey. The smaller the pieces of curd cheese produced increasingly crowded.
4). Preparation before maturation
Before ripening, the curd will go through the process of printing, pressing, and marinating. When curds reach optimal size he should be separated and printed. For small cheeses, whey is separated with a spoon and poured into molds, while for the larger cheese, removal of the tank using the help of a cloth. Before it is poured into the mold, the curd is drained first and then can be pressed and formed or sliced.
Furthermore, the cheese must be suppressed in accordance with the desired level of violence. Emphasis is usually not done for soft cheeses because of the weight of the cheese is hard enough to release the whey, as well as the weight of the cheese slices cheese also determines the desired density level. Nevertheless, most of the cheese through the process of suppression. The timing and intensity of suppression is different for each cheese.
The addition of salt made after the cheese is shaped to the cheese did not taste fresh, and there are four different ways to marinate cheese. For some cheeses, salt is added directly into the curds. The second way is to rub or sprinkle salt on the skin of the cheese, which will cause the skin and protects the cheese made in the cheese so as not mature too quickly. Some cheeses are salted with large soaking in brine, who spent many hours so many days. The last way is to wash the surface of the cheese with salt solution; besides providing taste, salt also helps to remove excess water, hardening the surface, so as not to dry out the cheese protect and preserve and purify the cheese when it enters the maturation process.
Maturation (ripening) is the process that turns fresh curd into cheese-curd filled with flavor. Maturation is caused by bacteria or fungi are used in the production process, and the final character of a lot of cheese is determined from the type pematangannya.Selama maturation process, the cheese is kept at a certain temperature and humidity levels until cheese ready to eat. This maturation time varies from several weeks to several days until soft cheeses to hard cheeses like Parmigiano-Reggiano. Some techniques before ripening process can be done to affect the final texture and flavor of cheese:
* Stretching: The curd is brought and then diadoni in hot water to produce a stringy texture. Sample cheeses through this process is Mozzarella and Provolone cheese.
* Cheddaring: The curd is cut and then stacked to eliminate moisture. The curd is then milled for a long time. Sample cheeses undergo this process adalahkeju English Cheddar and other cheeses.
* Washing: The curd is washed in warm water to reduce the acidity and make gentle taste of cheese. Examples of cheese through the washing process is cheese Edam, Gouda, and Colby.
* Combustion: For some hard cheese, curd is heated to a temperature of 35 ° C (95 ° F) -56 ° C (133 ° F), which later resulted in loss of water and grains of curd to make cheese becomes harder texture. This process is often referred to as combustion (burning). Sample is reheated cheese Emmental cheese, Gruyère and Appenzeller cheese.
2). TYPE CHEESE
It is estimated there are more than 400 kinds of cheeses in various countries around the world. Variations of this type of cheese obtained from the use of milk and bacteria are different, too long maturation process. In addition, the food eaten by the animals to be taken any effect on the cheese milk to be produced.
A). Based on the texture
Camembert cheese is a soft cheese from France with a white skin.
* Cheese loud: Maximum water content in this type of cheese is 56%, the less moisture in the cheese so the cheese will become tough. However, not all types of cheese has a hard texture, as an example of the softer cheeses Edam and Parmesan cheese could easily have grated Parmesan sliced while. Generally hard cheese matured in three months, but the maturation process can take up to one year and make cheese lose more water and become more violent.
* Cheese slices: Maximum water content in cheese slices ranged between 54-63% and therefore become mature faster and easier to cut than hard cheese.
* Semi-hard cheese slices: Water content in this type of cheese ranged from 61-69%, and most of the cheese is produced with low-calorie cream. Long maturation in these cheeses of different types, for example, semi hard cheese slices are Roquefort, Tetilla, and Weisslacker.
* Soft cheeses: soft cheese has a moisture content of over 67%. Because of the amount of water on the cheese, then the levels of fat contained in the cheese is also lower than harder cheeses.
B). Based on the maturation process
Cheese can be divided into five groups based on the maturation process. The five groups are:
* Bacteria cured from within: cheese example of this group is the Cheddar, Gouda, and Parmesan. Cheeses in this category becomes harder when mature. Maturity will occur uniformly across the outside of the cheese.
* Cheese is washed skin: cheese example of this group is and Liederkranz Limburger. Cheeses are periodically washed with brine surface part in the first stage of maturation. This type of cheese has a skin-colored or reddish orange. Typically, this cheese will be softer when ripe and has a pungent aroma.
* Streaky blue cheese: cheese example of this group is Roquefort and Stilton. Cheeses contain mold or fungal culture spread to all parts of the cheese.
* Cheese layered molds: cheese example of this group is Brie, Camembert, and St. Andre. Cheeses of this type have a hairy skin layers due to mold. Lining is white when the cheese is young but can be darker-streaked or striped when the cheese ripening process experience.
* Cheese is not cured: cheese example of this is the cottage cheese, cream cheese, and baker’s cheese. Do not experience this type of cheese ripening.
C). Under the skin
* Crusty Cheese: The characteristics of this cheese is great shape, take longer to mature, and through a process of suppression to remove moisture. Examples of this type of cheese is Raclette, Gruyere and Gouda.
* Cheese covered with soft fur: Cheese type is smooth and hairless skin. Examples of this type of cheese is Brie.
* Cheese Crusted natural: The inside of this cheese has a soft texture and skin gray or blue change when the cheese started to ripen. Examples of these types of cheese such as Sainte Maure and Pouligny St. Pierre.
* Cheese the skin washed with brine: Cheeses category bathed in salt water when cooked. Examples are Munster and Feta cheese.
* Blue cheese: Cheese-streaked blue-streaked blue or green. Color is obtained from the breeding of bacteria in the cheese. Examples of blue cheese is Stilton, Roquefort and Gorgonzola.
* Fresh Cheese: The characteristics of the fresh cheese is not a peel, have a high water content, and not through the maturation process. Examples include Demi-cell, Ricotta and Mascarpone.
D). Based on the type of milk used
* Cheese from goat’s milk: A lot of people who prefer to use goat’s milk because the fat content and low lactose and contains many nutrients.
* Cheese from sheep’s milk or sheep: Since most sheep produce less milk than cow and goat cheese so it was kind of hard to find and more expensive.
* Cheese from milk mixture: This type of cheese is made from a combination of two or more types of milk.
* Cheese from raw milk: Many argue that the process can relieve pasteurasi cheese so they use raw milk.
E). Cheese process
Different process cheeses cheeses other categories because the cheese is not produced directly from fresh milk but is made of cheese is ripe. The remains of various cheeses mixed together then milled, salted and heated. The cheese is available in a variety of processes bentuk.Keju process sheets are sold in the market.
F). Fresh cheese
Fresh cheese does not go through the maturation process as other cheeses. The solid part of cheese has reached 20%.
G). Pasta filata
Pasta filata is the name for a group of cheese whey is heated with hot water, diadoni and made into rope strands after acidified. This type of cheese comes from Italy, and then added to the List of Official Cheese Germany in 1999. The group varies from cheese to fresh cheese hard cheese. Several types of pasta filata cheese is Mozzarella, Provolone, and Scamorza. The water content in this type of cheese ranged between 62-76%.
H). Sour Cream Cheese
The water content in sour cream cheese ranged between 60-73%.  This type of cheese is produced from low-fat cheese tart, which is why this cheese has a low calorie content and high protein.
I). Vegetarian cheese
Most of the cheese manufactured using rennet derived from animal, taken from the stomach of a cow or sheep. Currently, there are many alternatives that come from animal rennet.
Some plants have the enzymes needed to curdle milk. The plants include fig tree bark, mallow and thistle. Some traditional cheese from Portugal and the Middle East made with vegetable rennet due to religious and cultural factors. Rennet can also be obtained from the enzyme from fungi or bacteria. Rennet type was developed in the late 1980s because of the scarcity of rennet derived from animals.
The harder the cheese, and the longer the maturation process of the cheese will last longer. Cottage cheese can last for a week, while the Parmesan cheese that has not been cut can last up to a year or more. Soft cheese such as Brie, Camembert and Liederkranz can not last long. Cheeses are a rare cheese because he’s just one week after the cheese is cooked and before it becomes too ripe. Others cheese is not too difficult to put in storage for refrigerated and wrapped in plastic.
During storage in the refrigerator, plastic wrap should adhere well to the cheese so that the cheese does not become dry. Cheese should be stored on the bottom refrigerator shelf, away from foods with pungent smell, to avoid the pervasive smell and taste undesirable. Bocconcini cheese from Canada and Feta Cheese should be stored in brine. Here is the time robustness cheeses after it opened and was not placed in the refrigerator:
* Fresh Cheese: a few days to two weeks
* Soft cheeses: two weeks when placed in a plastic wrap
* Semi-soft Cheese: two to four weeks
* Cheese harsh: Five weeks to a few months
* Cheese is very hard: more than one year
4). NUTRITIONAL CONTENT
Cheese is a food full of nutrients. Cheese has many elements in common with milk, a protein, fat, calcium and vitamins. A pound of cheese has protein and fat are equal in number to one gallon of milk. Cheese with high humidity levels have lower nutrient concentrations than the cheese low humidity levels.
Fat gives flavor and unique texture to the cheese. The fat content of cheese varies on the type of cheese to another. Fresh cheese has a fat content of up to 12%. While the fat content of cheese ripened ranged between 40-50%.
The cheese has a protein content of 10-30%. Protein is obtained from the modified casein. When the maturation process, proteins are broken down into oligopeptide and amino amino.Proses affects the structure and flavor of the cheese. The process called proteolysis and protein degradation because the process is so easy to digest protein.
The cheese is rich in calcium, phosphorus and zinc. One ounce of cheese contains approximately 200ml of calcium on the calcium content of the cheese will be different, depending on whether the cheese is coagulated using enzymes or acids. The cheeses coagulated using enzyme contains two times more calcium than either acid. Cheese is also high in sodium, because the addition of salt during the process of manufacture.
When pure milk used to make cheese, vitamin A and D are fat soluble live on curds. However, many water-soluble vitamins are lost borne whey. Only about a quarter of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and one-sixth of thiamine (vitamin B1) who lives in Cheddar, whereas niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic carried with whey.
The content of lactose in cheese is very small, which ranges from 4.5-4.7%.  This is because in the process, most of the lactose in the milk out with the whey and the remaining is converted into lactic acid during the process of maturation. Therefore, cheese is the food safe for consumption by people with lactose intolerance and diabetes.
D. IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
1. Negative Impact of Biotechnology
Biotechnology, bleak also other risky negative impact. Adverse impacts on biodiversity caused by the potential for gene flow ketanaman sekarabat or close relatives. In the area of human health there is the possibility of gene products asaing, like, cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaeericus, can cause allergic reactions in the body mausia, needs to also look at the insertion (insertion) asibg genes to genomes may lead to interactions anatar inag foreign genes and host of agricultural materials and chemical products using biotechnology.
Other effects that can be caused by biotechnology is an international competition in the trading and marketing of biotech products. Competition may lead to injustice in developing countries because it does not have the advanced technology, which is very much the technology gap is caused by modern biotechnology prohibitively costly developed by developing countries. Injustice, for example, are felt in transgenic agricultural products are very harmful for developing agrarian. Patents owned producer of genetically modified organisms is also further increase the dominance of developed countries.
2. Positive Impact of Biotechnology
Biodiversity is the main source of capital for the purposes of genes in the development of genetic engineering and the development of the biotechnology industry.CHAPTER III
From the above discussion can be concluded:
Biotechnology is a technology manufacturing processes involving activities of living things. Biotechnology is long known. Plenty of food and drink is a product of biotechnology include: tempe, tape, cheese, yogurt, monosodium glutamate, another danlain. Biotechnology is a relatively newly recognized modern biotechnology.
Modern biotechnology or molecular biotechnology is biotechnology that utilizes recombinant DNA technology and engineering and molecular carrier of genetic information is a combination of multi-disciplines such as: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Genetics and Bioprocess Engineering.
Making cheese is a product of traditional biotechnology.
The principle of making cheese is fermented lactic acid found in milk.
Cheese-making process begins with heating / pasteurization of milk, except in certain cheeses such as Emmentaler jenis2 from Switzerland who use raw milk. Then the auxiliary substances clotting (rennet, an enzyme in the clotting that of a cow stomach and / or bacteria that can acidify the milk) is added.
Depending on the method, once a half to 5 hours, the milk will coagulate so that separate into a big blob (curd) and part liquid (whey). These clots cut into equal portions large, so that part of the liquid (whey) the more you get out. The smaller the pieces, the less liquid contained by the cheese later, so the harder cheeses.
The pieces are then mixed, heated, and sometimes pressed to remove even more liquid.
After that, will still soft cheese was spiked with mushroom and shaped. Then oiled or soaked in salt water to kill harmful bacteria that may be contained in it. There are also different kinds of cheese, marinated before being mushrooms.
Lastly, will the cheese matured under certain conditions. The longer matured, the cheese will become tough.
Exception of the above, of course encountered.
Fresh cheese (fresh cheese) like cottage cheese or Ricotta for example, do not need to undergo the process of salting and ripening. In addition, many types of fresh cheese made instead of blobs (curd), but rather from the liquid part (whey) that is heated to clot.
So is the paper I stacking, may be useful for all of us in learning biology. I was sorry when the preparation of this paper were the words or things that are too outrageous I mohonmaaf profusely, because I am still in the learning process.
My message is, let us learn to improve our performance for memajikan country.